As people’s lives continue to improve, aluminum products are becoming more and more extensive in our lives. The issue of improving the quality of electronic aluminum foil is especially important. The production process of electronic aluminum foil is divided into two parts: calendering and finishing. In recent years, the market demand for electronic aluminum foil has gradually changed to higher quality and greater difference. The finishing technology represented by cleaning, shearing, rewinding, annealing and other processes has become very important, involving stability and improvement. The big problem of product quality and the ability to improve the ability of enterprises to meet the needs of customers has become a key issue for enterprises to survive and develop.

1 defects in the surface of aluminum foil

1.1 crater

After the aluminum foil is cleaned, it must be awakened and dried. Because of the flammable and explosive materials of the rolling mill and the cleaning agent, the ignition point is around 200 °C. The crater is in the drying process, the aluminum foil is cut by the air ball, the heat exchanger, the drying box and the like, and the solid particles are cut and the small particles are entangled between the steel roller and the aluminum foil, and the embossing is generally formed on the foil surface. Defects, reducing product quality; large particles can even cut through the foil surface, causing scrapping

1.2 oil spots

During the cleaning and rinsing process of the aluminum foil, the nozzle sprays the cleaning agent to the foil surface through a certain pressure and flow. After the cleaning agent reaches the foil surface and rebounds to the four walls, a large amount of high-concentration oil mist is generated, and the oil spot is formed over time. .

1.3 abrasions

Scratch is a common quality problem of all finishing equipment including cleaning. The mechanism is that the aluminum foil is slippery on the thin surface and the roll surface during the cleaning process, but the cause of the slip is related to machinery, electrical appliances, crafts, etc. Various aspects.

1.4 wrinkles

The thickness of the electronic aluminum foil entering the cleaning pass is generally about 0.1 mm. Due to the thinness of the incoming material, the fluctuation of the plate type, the occurrence of waves and waves, etc., the material in the cleaning process passes through the pinch roller and the squeeze roller. Wrinkles appear.

2 Measures to improve the foil surface

2.1 Improvement measures for pressure pits

The control of the crater is divided into two steps: the early stage equipment is used only in the later stage and the later stage. High-temperature oxidation of the drying equipment is unavoidable, but the oxidation-resistant stainless steel material is used in the early equipment manufacturing process, and a protective gas welding process such as argon arc welding is used, which may reduce the oxidation of the material surface and the welded portion in use in the future. The possibility. In the later stage of use, a multi-layer stainless steel filter is added to the air duct. In order to reduce the clogging of the filter and reduce the air volume, the filter can be periodically cleaned or replaced for routine maintenance.

2.2 Oil spot improvement measures

During the cleaning and rinsing process of the aluminum foil, a large amount of high-concentration oil mist will be generated in the tank body and eventually fall on the foil surface to cause pollution. Since a large amount of mist will consume cleaning agents, increase the cost of the enterprise, and the effect is not satisfactory, it is only considered to block the oil droplets to the foil surface. It is found that the oil droplets are mainly installed with an arc-shaped baffle at the top of the tank at the distance from the squeezing roller to the rinsing tank, and an oil sump is installed at the top of the rinsing tank outlet to guide the oil droplets to both sides, thereby eliminating the foil surface oil spot. .

2.3 Improvement measures for scratches and scratches

The causes of scratches are mechanical structure, electrical control and process selection.

1 For each roller not synchronized, check whether the synchronous toothed belt is tight and the bearing is lubricated in place;

2 Electrically adjust the motor parameters so that the individual drive rollers are not synchronized, and the correction of the winding diameter error control mode selects simple tension control and speed control.

3 The process tension and speed settings should match the front and rear passes, and a reasonable range should be selected.

2.4 Wrinkle improvement measures

For the poor type of material, the following measures are taken: 1. Adding several sets of S-shaped U-shaped rolls on both sides of the unwinding and winding to correct the effect; 2. Installing the plate-type adjusting rolls on both sides of the unwinding and winding. Eliminate the edge waves by adjusting the level and parallelism of the roller; 3. Eliminate the mid-wave by increasing the rubber roller or other convexity.

3 electronic aluminum foil cleaning

3.1 Status analysis

3.1.1 Importance of cleaning

Electronic aluminum foil belongs to deep processing technology, and the surface quality has a great influence on the electronic storage capacity. The small defects caused by the previous process on the surface of the aluminum foil will be amplified in the subsequent process. Therefore, only the quality of the foil surface is performed in each process in the production process. strict control.

3.1.2 Cleaning process

The cleaning process of the aluminum foil is as follows: the strip enters the device from the uncoiler and the inlet deflector roller, first passes through the lower brush roller, and a cleaning liquid is sprayed between the lower brush roller and the strip to wash the lower surface of the strip. Next, the strip passes through the upper roller, and a cleaning liquid is also sprayed between the upper roller and the strip to wash the upper surface of the strip. The strip then enters the rinse tank. Still use the same cleaning solution to spray the upper and lower surfaces of the strip. The cleaning oil on the surface of the strip was squeezed through a 2# dry roll. After the strip exits the rinsing tank, it enters the drying box, and the residual cleaning liquid on the strip is evaporated under the hot air purging. Later, the strip passes through the outlet deflecting roller and is circulated by the coiler into a roll. The cleaning is over.

4 cutting of electronic aluminum foil

4.1 Description of the status of equipment and quality defects

The shearing machines are available in different models. These devices are available in both narrow and wide widths. They have both trimming and drawing, and both single and double shafts. No matter what type of shearing machine is mainly used for unwinding, slitting, The volume is composed of three parts. As customers’ demand for aluminum foil rolls is changing to large volume, high quality, short delivery time and multiple specifications. The cutters, shafts, rollers, and dies of the shearing machine are subject to problems such as increased wear, reduced accuracy, and frequent replacement. The shearing part may cause scratches, craters, burrs and other quality defects due to the fabrication and fitting accuracy of the disc knives and knives. Due to the use and design problems of the surface roller, the take-up shaft and the die, the coiling portion may cause quality defects such as flanging, split layer, and unstable internal stress.

4.2 Causes and improvement of shear quality defects

4.2.1 Scratch

Reason: The problem of scratching is a common problem in the shearing process, and it is also a problem that is difficult to solve completely. The main cause of scratches is that the end face is misaligned by the disc knife or the knife pad when it is assembled with the knife shaft. When the aluminum foil slides over the sharp corner, the material of the lower knife or the knife pad is harder than the aluminum foil, at a specific rotation speed. Extremely small slippage occurs in a very short period of time, reflected in the point or line scratches on the material surface. Since everyone pays more attention to the machining accuracy and assembly precision of disc knives, knives and knives, we will not discuss the scratches caused by the above reasons. This paper mainly studies the following cases that are easily overlooked. Since the disc cutter becomes dull after a period of use, it is necessary to replace the new knife frequently, and the knife pad is generally fixed. The equipment and quality defects of the disc knife and the knife pad will be described each time a new disc knife is replaced. There are many different types of aluminum foil shearing machines in our company. These devices have both narrow and wide widths. Both the trimming and the long-term accumulation of the strips will cause the outer diameter of the mat to be relatively small. A batch of old disc knives is used up, and the problem of sharp corners will be more prominent after replacing a batch of new disc knives. 2 Design link problem: Aluminum foil is prone to flanging and embossing during the slitting process, mainly due to the aluminum powder sticking knife. There are two sources of aluminum powder, one is the aluminum powder attached to the surface of the aluminum foil; the other is the aluminum powder produced during the shearing process. The two parts of aluminum powder gather on the tip of the knife to make the knife dull, which causes the material surface to be turned over. When the aluminum powder falls to the material surface, a crater is generated. Improvement measures: New knives need to be replaced frequently, and the knives are generally fixed. Each time a new disc knives is replaced, the equipment and quality defects of the disc knives and knives will be polished.

4.2.2 Flanging and pressing

Reason: Aluminum foil is prone to flanging and embossing during the slitting process, mainly due to the aluminum powder sticking knife. There are two sources of aluminum powder, one is the aluminum powder attached to the surface of the aluminum foil; the other is the aluminum powder produced during the shearing process. The two parts of aluminum powder gather on the tip of the knife to make the knife dull, which causes the material surface to be turned over. When the aluminum powder falls to the material surface, a crater is generated. Improvement measures: 1 Add a set of aluminum powder purging device, purify the tool in the opposite direction, and remove the aluminum powder attached to the tool; 2 pad the felt with kerosene, diesel and other light oil and stick it on the knife. When cutting, the felt is wiped on the surface to prevent the aluminum powder from collecting. 3 Soak the knife in the inside with 5 NaOH alkali solution, heat it to 60-70 ° C, remove it, rinse it with water, and dry it. This method can be used in the knife. A protective layer is formed on the surface to reduce the amount of aluminum foil sticking.

4.2.3 Uneven surface layer and roll density uneven

Reason: The cause of the inconsistency between the end-face staggered layer and the roll density is mainly on the take-up shaft. When using the air-expansion shaft to cut the heavier roll, whether it is an inflatable pressure-holding inflatable shaft or a continuous aerated air-expansion shaft, when When the weight of the coil exceeds the support force provided by the air pressure, the weight of the coil is too large, which may cause the core to sag and the coil to be eccentric, affecting the density of the coil and the quality of the end surface. Improvement measures: The simpler measure is to replace the knife pad in time, and the second step can adopt the structure of the outer rubberized knife pad. The outer diameter is larger than the outer diameter of the disk cutter by 0.01ram-0.05ram, and the upper part is rounded and rounded. The radius is about 0.01 ram – 0.15 ram, the rubber is urethane rubber, and the hardness is ≥ HS85. The upper and lower knives usually use an external gear transmission. The number of teeth and the modulus of the upper cutter drive gear can be adjusted according to the change of the upper cutter diameter to achieve the matching purpose.

4.2.4 Jumping and toothing

Cause: Jumping and toothing are prone to problems during tool use. After the grinding of the upper knife, the total outer diameter will be reduced by 6-8 ram, and only the clearance of the upper and lower cutter transmission gears will be used for the elastic fit, and the overlap of the upper and lower knives cannot be guaranteed, so that the inner wall of the steel pipe core can provide the support and torque structure. Instead of providing the support by the shaft, the drive pin provides the structure of the rotational torque, both of which cause equipment damage and waste. Improvement measures: The upper and lower knives usually adopt external gear transmission. The number of teeth and the modulus of the upper cutter drive gear can be adjusted according to the change of the upper cutter diameter to achieve the matching purpose. By improving the winding shaft, the transmission and support functions are separated, and bearing support can ensure smooth rotation of the shaft and improve the quality of the winding. By using clutch transmission, frequent replacement caused by cone wear can be eliminated, and equipment maintenance costs can be reduced.

5 electronic aluminum foil rewinding

5.1 Technical requirements for aluminum foil rewinder

In order to ensure that the paper roll does not deform or crack during transportation and storage, it can run smoothly on printing equipment or other processing equipment. The finished paper roll must have sufficient hardness, and the inner tightness is loose and the radial hardness is evenly distributed. Therefore, the rewinder must have the following functions: 1 Set the integrator of the support roller torque so that the input speed signal is a smoothly rising ramp signal, rather than a sudden amount. By changing the integral of the given integrator to the constant, the slope of the E-slope of the ramp signal can be changed. When the system starts, the speed acceleration is smaller than when no integrator is given; 2 the pressure of the platen roller is adjusted and squeezed; 3 the “disturbance” start of the electric drive and the appropriate speed program control; 4 the indirect or the tension Control, etc.

Research on improving the quality of electronic aluminum foil

Figure 1: Aluminum foil rewinding machine

5.2 Composition of the electronic control system

The front bottom roller, the rear bottom roller and the paper ejection roller of the winder are respectively driven by a separate AC motor, and the slitting circular cutter adopts an AC variable frequency transmission, and maintains a 5%–20% speed difference with the rear bottom roller. The auxiliary drive consists of two parts, a pneumatic and hydraulic system, which are used to control the movement of the auxiliary drive mechanism and cooperate with the main drive. The entire electronic control system is mainly composed of three partial volumes, and the chain of the bottom roller is adjusted to be smaller by the town.

5.3 Control of the back roll tension

The control of the rollback tension affects the shape of the finished roll. Stable web tension can avoid lateral deflection of the web. Appropriate web tension can improve the quality of the paper roll to a certain extent, reduce breakage and keep the winder stable. Therefore, web tension control is an important part of the electronic control system.

5.4 Dynamic compensation in the tension control of the eject roller

In the actual operation of the system, the diameter of the ejected paper roll is getting smaller and smaller. Due to the inertia of the system, during the process of accelerating the unwinding, decelerating and stopping and running at a steady speed, the electromagnetic torque of the inertia should be positively added. Moment M. To compensate for the energy that needs to be absorbed.

6 Effect of annealing system on the performance of aluminum foil

Research on improving the quality of electronic aluminum foil

6.1 Effect of thickness on the performance of aluminum foil products

When the metal undergoes cold deformation, the internal energy of the metal will rise, and the atom will be in an unstable state. Naturally, there is a tendency to change in a stable state. Most metal materials refuse to complete this transformation at room temperature, when the metal back is heated, Increasing the mobility of the atom and accelerating the diffusion rate of the atom can complete the transition of the atom to a stable state. This is the internal cause of the fly-off and recrystallization of the cold-deformed metal during annealing. However, the heat energy provided by the cold-deformed metal back is sufficient to overcome the bonding force between the atoms, allowing the atoms to migrate and freely diffuse to occur in the crystallization. The recrystallization temperature depends on the atomic migration to re-form the nucleus and The higher the activation energy required to grow up, the higher the activation energy required and the higher the recrystallization temperature. The first scheme is to carry out intermediate annealing of aluminum foil blank at a thickness of 1.5 mm (cold deformation processing rate is about 80%). The second scheme is to perform intermediate annealing of aluminum foil blank at a thickness of 2.5 mm (cold deformation processing rate is about 65%). The processing rate of the second produced blank is smaller. The activation energy required for recrystallization of the metal is higher, the recrystallization temperature is higher, and the strength is higher. On the other hand, the 2.5 mm intermediate annealed aluminum foil blank is processed into According to the metallurgical theory, the storage energy retained in the dislocation form in the metal structure is the driving force for recrystallization during annealing. The nucleation rate in the recrystallization process increases with the increase of the metal deformation. Therefore, 2.5 is used. Mm intermediate annealed aluminum foil blanks, the aluminum foil obtained by rolling has a greater amount of deformation during annealing, and the storage energy accumulated in the form of dislocations is also larger. The nucleation rate in the original aluminum foil is greatly increased during recrystallization. Therefore, the aluminum foil can obtain a finer grain structure after the finish annealing, and thus the strength and elongation are higher.

6.2 Effect of temperature on the performance of aluminum foil products

For the aluminum foil blank produced by the casting and rolling method, the cooling and solidification and deformation of the metal during casting and rolling are all completed in the casting and rolling zone with a roll diameter of 650 mm – 700 mm. The length of the larger casting zone is about 50 mm. The length of the casting zone is only about ten millimeters. The solidification crystallization of Yuan metal is only about 1 s. The speed of this solidification is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of semi-continuous casting. The various impurities and alloying elements in the aluminum alloy are The solid solubility in aluminum varies with temperature. For example, according to the equilibrium phase diagram, the solubility of iron in aluminum at eutectic temperature (655 °C) is about 0.052%. The solubility decreases to 0.002% at room temperature. The faster the cooling rate deviates from the equilibrium state, the more severe it is. Therefore, the intragranular segregation of the billet produced by the casting method and the degree of supersaturation of the solid solution are more serious than those of the semi-continuous casting. If the annealing temperature is high (to reach the homogenization temperature) during the intermediate annealing, the supersaturated element in the metal can be promoted. According to the analysis, the decrease of solid solubility in the phase increases the self-diffusion coefficient of the atom, which is beneficial to the nucleation and growth of the new nucleus during annealing. The recrystallization temperature of the material is reduced. If the temperature does not reach the homogenization effect during the intermediate annealing. However, only the plastic recovery of the metal can be satisfied. At this time, the supersaturated solid solution of the metal is not fully analyzed.

Characteristics of aluminum packaging:

  1. Aluminum packaging effectively protects food and drink and reduces waste;
  2. Aluminum packaging is non-toxic and harmless, safe and reliable;
  3. Aluminum is an efficient packaging material with low material consumption;
  4. Recycling of aluminum packaging is beneficial to sustainable development;
  5. Aluminum packaging facilitates the storage and transportation through light weight saving resources;
  6. Aluminum packaging has the best life cycle assessment and environmental impact.

Eight system advantages of aluminum packaging:

  1. Protectiveness:

Aluminum completely cuts off light, gas and moisture, it can be used in packaged food, beverage, medicine and other technical fields. Aluminum packaging helps reduce waste and greatly saves energy. Aluminum cans are lightweight, portable and not easily broken, it also can protect the food, drinks or medicine and health care products intact.

 

     2.thermal conductivity high:

Aluminum has high conductivity, it can reduce temperature transfer. Aluminum foil is not deformed, cracked, melted or charred.

 

  1. Quantitative:

The aluminum package weighs light, it helps save energy, it also facilitates the storage and transportation of scrapped products.

 

       4.Easy molding:

Aluminum is ductile and easy to form, aluminum foil has sealing and folding characteristics, it can be used in the packaging of many different products.

 

  1. Save resources:

Aluminum foil packaging consumes less than 10 percent of the total energy needed by the supply chain.

At the same time, aluminum packaging prolongs the product maintenance period and protects the product quality.

 

  1. Recycle:

Aluminum has recycling value, compared to raw aluminum production, the amount of energy needed to recycle aluminum is only 5 per cent of raw aluminum.

 

     7.Sanitary safety:

In aluminum foil production process, use high temperature annealing disinfection process, so the aluminum foil can be safely in contact with food and medicine, does not contain or contribute to bacterial growth.

The aluminum base of cans has strict requirements for toxic elements, and the inner wall is coated with food grade coating, which will not react with beverage.

 

  1. Decorative:

Aluminum has a bright metallic luster, compatible with all printing technologies, have good decorative performance, you can design excellent patterns and brand logos.

Therefore, aluminum can be used to make beverage cans, bottle labels, aluminum bottle caps, confectionery aluminum foil and tubular cosmetics.

 

 

 

The European parliament passes a wide-ranging proposal to ban the use of single-use plastics in Strasbourg, France, on oct 24, 2018

The European parliament approved this proposal by voted 571 on 53 on that day.

Under the proposal,the European Union will ban the use of disposable plastic products with substitutes, such as plastic straws, disposable earplugs, dinner plates and so on by 2021,besides, the Fishing nets currently causing major pollution in the Mediterranean and Atlantic oceans will also be remanufactured.

 

In the next few weeks,Before the proposal became law,the discussions will continue in the European parliament, the European commission and member states.

 

FransTimmermans, President of the European commission said:Plastic waste is undoubtedly a big problem,the europeans need to act together to solve this problem,Because plastic waste ends up in our air, soil, oceans and food. The commission added in its statement,by 2015,The proposal would save 6.5 billion euros a year for consumers,And reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 3.4 million tons. As stipulated,The proposals need to be approved by the European parliament and the European council, it is a big step towards its legislative goal if the European parliament can approve the proposal.

In the context of the above situation,Aluminum packaging materials are bound to become an important alternative to plastic packaging in both domestically and internationally,Aluminum and aluminum packaging industry will embrace new development opportunities, Enterprises need to seize the opportunity to further develop strategies and measures to expand the aluminum packaging market.

Pursue new business opportunities while meeting social needs,and make industry contribution to social sustainable development.

 

Aluminum is an excellent packing material,Has been widely integrated into the human way of life.

We can supply you all kinds of the aluminum package raw materials, please contact us to get the newest price for the aluminum foils.

 

Aluminum processing is the production of various forms of products through the various processes and processes such as casting, rolling (or extrusion) and surface treatment for the transportation, construction, packaging, electrical, mechanical equipment and other industries. Aluminum deformation processing products can be divided into two categories: aluminum plate with foil and aluminum profile according to different processing techniques. The calendering process produces aluminum sheets with foils, which are widely used in various fields of the national economy; the extrusion process produces aluminum profiles, which are mainly used in the construction industry. Depending on the processing technology, aluminum processed products can be divided into two categories: aluminum profiles produced by the melt-casting-extrusion process; and aluminum strips and aluminum foils produced by the hot-rolling-cold rolling process. Among them, aluminum profiles are mainly used in construction and industrial fields, while aluminum foils are mainly used in home appliances and food and beverage fields.

China’s aluminum consumption is growing strongly. According to the “13th Five-Year Plan” non-ferrous metal industry plan, China’s total aluminum consumption will reach 43 million tons by 2020, and the CAGR will reach 7.24% during 2016-2020. From the current point of view, China’s aluminum processing industry production enterprises can be divided into two major competition groups. The first group is domestic leading enterprises. These companies, such as Chinalco, are listed companies. They have the dual advantages of technology and capital, have strong competitiveness, and have a large market share. The second group It is a small and medium-sized aluminum processing and production enterprise in China. They rely on cost advantages to gain their own place in the market competition at a lower price, and are ready to look for market opportunities. They are expected to be stronger and bigger, and at the same time, they also face Big competition risks, there is the possibility of being eliminated at any time.

At present, China’s annual per capita aluminum consumption or per capita aluminum stocks are far from the developed countries, and the consumption potential is huge. From the specific consumption field, the consumption of aluminum in the fields of construction, structure, automobile, packaging and furniture is very different from that of foreign countries, and the development potential is great. The effectiveness of expanding the application of aluminum has gradually emerged. The proportion of aluminum alloy tankers in the country has reached 8%; the output of aluminum alloy building formwork has exploded. In addition, the commercial application of aluminum air batteries has made breakthrough progress, and the application prospects in the future are limitless. The commercial application of aluminum air batteries will push up the peak consumption of primary aluminum in China and the world.

I. Market operation characteristics of China’s aluminum processing industry

Six highlights of China’s aluminum processing industry in 2017

One of the highlights: international cooperation – the pace of “going out” has obviously accelerated

Driven by China’s “going out” strategy and the “One Belt, One Road” initiative, the pace of Chinese companies’ international and international cooperation has accelerated markedly. In 2017, China’s aluminum processing industry has more frequent cooperation and exchanges with other countries.

China Zhongwang Holdings Co., Ltd. acquired Australian Silver Yacht Co., Ltd. and Germany Unna Aluminum Co., Ltd. Silver Yacht Company and Onna Aluminum Company are the crown jewels of the world aluminum alloy yacht industry and aviation aluminum alloy anti-extrusion seamless industry respectively, opening up the first place for Chinese aluminum processing enterprises to acquire foreign top enterprises, and become the world’s aluminum processing industry for China. Industrial powers are of great significance.

Bohai Piston intends to acquire a well-known company of 75% of the German company.

Highlight 2: Zui glare highlights – international trade friction highlights

In 2017, the international trade friction of aluminum processing materials increased, becoming the highlight of Zui. In 2017, the United States alone initiated a number of trade investigations into China’s aluminum trade. Among them, the double-reverse investigation against aluminum foil was the first double-counter case against the Trump administration, and the countervailing preliminary judgment was imposed 96.81%. With a tax rate of 162.24%, the discriminatory practice of “substitute countries” continued to be used in the case, and the double-reverse investigation against China’s aluminum strips was in the past 40 years. The US Department of Commerce for the first time did not receive formal requirements from relevant industries. Initiated investigation.

Highlight 3: Nanshan Aluminum passed Boeing’s plate certification

On June 28, 2017, Nanshan Aluminium Company was officially incorporated into Boeing’s Gege supplier sequence through the Boeing 7050AMS Aeronautical Sheet Engineering Certification. It is also the aerospace aluminum alloy sheet produced in China and obtained the world’s aircraft manufacturer. The certification of the first largest enterprise has its first certification, and the certifications of other enterprises and organizations will follow. On September 12, 2017, Nanshan Aluminum issued the first batch of orders to Boeing, marking the Chinese aerospace class. The supply capacity of aluminum sheets has reached the international leading level.

Highlight 4: Recycling – Breakthrough in recycling of waste aluminum cans

In 2017, Dazheng Aluminum Co., Ltd. established China’s first 50,000-ton/year 3104 alloy ingot production line, which was jointly developed by Beijing University of Science and Technology and North China Light Alloy Co., Ltd. Aipusheng Recycling New Materials Co., Ltd. built a 3104 alloy flat ingot project in Changge City, Henan Province, using waste aluminum cans. On March 5, 2017, the expert demonstrated. The construction and commissioning of these projects will reverse the situation that China’s waste aluminum can recycling and recycling technology is lagging behind the world’s advanced level for 30 years.

Highlight 5: Localization of aluminum – will gradually increase from 2017 onwards

2017 is an unusual year for China’s spacecraft manufacturing industry. On the one hand, it is the first year for China to become a big country and a strong country. On the other hand, the localization rate of various aluminum materials used will gradually increase from 2017. A substantial increase will be made by the use of national aluminum and poly-aluminum-based materials by 2022, whether it is a bat-like drone or a huge An-225 “fantasy” transport aircraft; whether it is a civil aircraft or Military aircraft; whether it is a tangible aircraft or a new generation of stealth fighters 歼20.

Highlight 6: China Zhongwang-Tianjin aluminum strip project has been put into production

2017 is a key year for the Zhongwang Tianjin aluminum strip project. The first hot rolling line was put into operation in September 2017. The second line equipment is being installed and commissioned. It will be put into operation in the middle of 2018, and 1.8 million tons will be formed by then. The annual production capacity of flat rolling products has become the single enterprise of the world’s large flat rolled aluminum products. In the future, the second phase of construction will be carried out to increase the total production capacity to 3 million tons per year. The base is located in the Auto Parts Industrial Park of Wuqing District, with a total investment of 46.6 billion yuan and an area of ​​about 5.5 million m2.

Second, the structure analysis of China’s aluminum processing industry

Product standards and quality are fully integrated with the international market, and gradually break through the occupation of the international market. China’s major aluminum standards are based on European, American and Japanese standards and are in line with international standards. China GB-T5237 aluminum alloy building profiles national standard and English version have been recognized and adopted by many countries in the world.

Trade friction has become the norm. With the increase in the export volume of China’s aluminum processing products, the enhancement of competitiveness, the rise of international trade protectionism, and increased trade frictions, a few countries even frequently conduct administrative investigations on Chinese aluminum products and file double-difigation proceedings. After the United States conducted 32 competition investigations on China’s aluminum industry in 2016, it launched a double-reverse investigation on aluminum foil in 2017. On October 27, the US Department of Commerce announced the preliminary investigation results of China’s aluminum foil double anti-dumping, and decided to impose an import tariff of 96.8% – 162.2% on aluminum foil imported from China. The final decision of Zui will be announced in February 2018.

Product development is mechanized. A number of aluminum processing industry clusters have been gradually formed throughout China, such as Guangdong Nanhai, Shandong Linyi aluminum alloy construction platform, Henan Gongyi aluminum strip, Liaoning Liaoyang industrial profiles, Shandong Binzhou, Inner Mongolia Hollingrad, Xinjiang Colorful Bay and other places A new model is being formed around the centralized layout of the electrolytic aluminum plant.

The development of aluminum processing enterprises is large. The production capacity of many enterprises has reached 500,000 tons per year, and some even reached the scale of 1 million tons per year, such as Chinalco, Zhongwang Group, Nanshan Aluminum, Feng Aluminum, Xingfa Aluminum, Huajian Aluminum. And other businesses.

Specialization in aluminum processing production. A variety of development models coexist in the industry, more and more companies pay more attention to market segments, such as Jianmei aluminum to produce high-end aluminum profiles; Liaocheng Wanhe production heat exchange system with long and short flat tubes, the domestic market share Gao; Shanghai Huafeng mainly produces brazing composite materials. These enterprises are moderate in scale, but they all have a large share and the benefits are significant.

Product production is customized. Liaoning Zhongwang, Shandong Jungle and other processing enterprises have been transformed from manufacturing vehicle platform to manufacturing rail vehicles. Hunan Tongtong cooperates with logistics companies to produce lightweight high-end trucks. It also cooperates with CNPC to produce lightweight high-end tankers from simple materials. Producers, turned into a total solution provider, just as aluminum profiles become the overall supplier of aluminum doors and windows, product customization is becoming popular.

China’s aluminum profile production enterprises can be divided into three levels according to their production products: The first level mainly includes China Zhongwang, Xingfa Aluminum, Ropeskin, Liyuan Aluminum, Asia Pacific Technology and Nanshan Aluminum. The main business of the company is mainly aluminum profile production, and is actively developing into the field of deep processing. In this level of competition, competition is relatively moderate. The second level of competition includes Dongliang New Materials, Minfa Aluminum, Haomei Aluminum, Weiye Aluminum, Huachang Aluminum, etc. (other companies in the analysis of this report), which have certain brand awareness. However, the scale is relatively small compared to the first-tier enterprises, and there is a certain gap between R&D and innovation capabilities. There are many enterprises at the third level of competition. These enterprises are mainly engaged in the production of low-end products, with fierce competition, insufficient innovation capability and relatively small scale.

To know which material is better for the power battery casing, the first thing to know is the power battery. Although there is no clear definition of the power battery academic community, the global electric vehicle industry basically agrees that batteries that provide driving power for electric vehicles are called power batteries, including traditional lead-acid batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, and emerging lithium-ion power. Lithium batteries are currently being promoted in the world for lightweighting, and aluminum is a better choice. These power battery casings are preferably 3003 aluminum foil.

3003 electronic foil has good formability, mainly used in deep-drawn materials. It uses 3003 aluminum alloy products as stamping parts, models and shells, etc. It has many advantages such as good surface, good plasticity and pressure resistance. The power battery case made of 3003 aluminum alloy product has impact resistance, non-breaking and leakage, and can meet the requirements of strength and rigidity of the power battery case, and the aluminum alloy has small density and light weight, which can reduce the weight of the battery and increase the battery capacity density. To make the battery work stable, indirectly reduce the quality of the vehicle and increase the battery life.

3003 power battery shell is one of the advantages of Mingtai Aluminum, with mature technology, excellent quality and global distribution. The 3003 alloy aluminum coil has the following 4-point performance:

1. Excellent forming and processing characteristics, high corrosion resistance, good weldability and electrical conductivity.

2. The surface is flat, plastic and pressure resistant.

3, with impact resistance, not easy to break and leak, can meet the strength and rigidity requirements of the power battery casing.

4, lightweight automotive aluminum, low density, light weight, can reduce the weight of the vehicle, improve vehicle life.

Introduction

As engineers and scientists simplify and ease our lives by discovering, innovating, and designing and creating newer products and better technologies, we often miss how our current technological prowess and abilities are a result of major discoveries and innovation in supporting industries and processes.

A primary example is the smelting industry that extracts the metals that give structure, shape, and form to a diverse range of appliances, tools, and day-to-day items.

A simple revisit to the industrial revolution shows us how the foundational metal (Iron), and its economical mass extraction and production was crucial to bringing us the mechanical age. It would have become impossible to sustain our progress (leaps and bounds) if we had not found a more potent metal to serve the needs of the era for a more economical replacement.

We plowed through to a newer age within a century because of the discovery of a new metal, and the innovation of developing the needed processes for its economical extraction.

This was achieved by the rediscovery of a metal that was plentiful and relatively inexpensive; was light weight yet strong; proved a good conductor of heat and electricity; naturally resistant to corrosion; and was both ductile and malleable allowing for creation of different alloys to cost-effectively match the exact needs of the products it needs to be used with.

Serving all the needs and requirements of our modern age is the metallic element aluminum, the third most plentiful element present in our earth’s crust. Taking up nearly 8% of earth’s soil and rocks, metallic aluminum is always found as a chemical compound. It bonds with other elements such as oxygen, sulphur, and silicon.

This poses a problem: only pure metallic aluminum offers the properties needed to meet the demands of our current age.

Over the past hundred years, since the dawn of the automobile revolution, engineers and scientists have been continuously developing and refining methods for extracting pure metallic aluminum from earth’s crust. The current best and most economic method of extracting pure, metallic aluminum is by extracting it from the aluminum oxide ore.

But before we delve into the working of the processes that are used to extract this fine metal, let’s take a moment to understand why aluminum was “re-discovered”. Knowing this is important on two accounts:

  1. It allows us to realize that the ancient civilizations were well aware of its presence and uses. This raises the question: why did they not place as much importance to it as we are, which allows us to:
  2. Understand the importance of the metal in context of our modern and unprecedented progress in scientific discovery, engineering and technology. Aluminum became important because of the demands of our age — speed, durability, and economic efficiency.

Let’s see some of the discoveries about how the metal was being used in the ancient civilizations.

Aluminum — A Brief Journey Across History

The ancient civilizations realized the importance of Aluminum compounds, with evidence dating back to as early as 5000 B.C. Persia. The Persian potters were renowned for strong vessels made from clay, which it was found contained aluminum oxide — an integral component of the modern aluminum extraction processes.

The ancient Babylonians and Egyptians knew the effects different compounds of aluminum produced. We have found that they extensively used them in their medicines, for dying fabrics, and in cosmetics.

However, none of them actually tried to extract the metal from its oxide until the nineteenth century when aluminum was first identified and extracted as a separate element for the periodic table. The early techniques and methods used for isolating the metal were difficult and costly, making aluminum one of the rarest elements on the planet. Although we have a curious case of a metal ornament found in the tomb of Chou-Chu, a military leader in 3rd century China, and which contained 85% aluminum. How it so much aluminum was extracted and efficiently used remains a mystery, and considered a special case.

The discovery of the fact that aluminum oxide actually contained a metal (till then considered rare) was only made at the end of the 1700s. It defeated all attempts at being extracted.

Many of the greatest minds of the era set out to extract this unusually stubborn metal.

The first documented attempt for isolating and extracting aluminum is from Humphry Davy. He tried to remove potassium and sodium from the “earths” (an early name given to the oxides) using electric current, however his attempt to use the same process to release aluminum from its oxides failed.

In 1825 Hans Christian Oersted from Copenhagen, Denmark, became the first person to make a successful attempt by heating aluminum chloride with potassium. His attempt made headway but only procured an impure sample of aluminum.

Hence, it fell to Friedrich Wöhler, a German chemist to perfect Oersted’s method in 1827. Replacing sodium with potassium and heating the oxide, he was able to obtain pure aluminum for the first time in history.

INTERESTINGLY SO, aluminum became and remained as valuable as silver for over half a century after being discovered. So much so that in 1884, when around 60 Kg (125 lb) of aluminum was produced in the United States, it was sold for the same price of silver. Compare this with the dramatic change in pricing in the year 1995 when 3.6 million metric tons (7.8 billion lb) of aluminum, produced in U.S. plants was sold at a unit price SEVENTY-FIVE times LESSER than the price of silver.

The world had discovered, developed, refined, and nearly perfected an economical extraction method of pure aluminum from its core.

Credit goes to the ideas and independent work done by two 22-year-old scientists in 1886. They developed a smelting process that would make mass extraction of aluminum economical. The processes are known as the Hall-Heroult process. Named after the American and French inventors, it is still the primary method of aluminum production today. This was followed by contributions by the Austrian chemist Carl Josef Bayer in 1888. The Bayer process dramatically increased the refining process for the aluminum ore and further bolstered our ability to economically produce aluminum.

Producing Aluminum — The Two Phases

The extraction and production of pure metallic aluminum can be divided into two distinct phases:

  1. Using the Bayer process of refining the primary aluminum ore (bauxite ore) to obtain the aluminum oxide
  2. Using the Hall-Heroult Process of smelting the aluminum oxide to release the pure metallic aluminum for further processing

Let’s start with the raw materials needed to start the process.

Producing Aluminum — It begins with the Raw Materials

Being the second most abundant metal in the earth’s crust does not make aluminum easy. In general, Aluminum compounds occur in all types of clay, but towing millions of tons of clay is not the option.

Hence, the basic premises of economical extraction and production are the availability of large ore deposits where the metal is available concentrated quantities and less number of impurities in the ore. Fewer impurities ensure that the process can easily cater the impurities that are present and easily remove them as either sludge, or through another refining process.

Bauxite is the most useful ore used for producing aluminum.

It consists of 45%-60 of aluminum oxide per unit. The remainder comprises of various impurities (such as potassium, iron, and other metals) which can easily be removed as sludge that is left at the end of the process. Bauxite is normally available as clay and soft dirt, and although bauxite deposits can harden to rocks. Bauxite is easily available in the upper layers of the earth crust, and hence is mined from a few meters below the ground. Bauxite is usually dug from pit mines created for extracting the ore. Currently, Australia leads in supplying bauxite to the world — commanding and serving over one-third of the world’s appetite for more raw bauxite ore.

Other raw materials include caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) for dissolving aluminum compounds and separating the impurities. Other chemicals and compounds are also used depending on other identified impurities present in the ore.

Producing Aluminum — The basics

It takes about 2 kg (4 lb) of bauxite to deliver 0.5 kg (1 lb) of pure metallic aluminum, or to extend it to more practical and industrial process worthy levels, about four tons of bauxite are needed to deliver 2 tons of alumina, and those 2 tons of alumina are then refined to produce 1 ton of pure aluminum.

Let’s see how this is achieved in two stages:

Stage 1

Converting Bauxite to Alumina

This is a five step process:

#1 — Crushing the Bauxite Ore

The purity of the final material depends on the predictable nature of the ore as much as on the systematic nature of the process.

Hence, the recovery of the alumina starts by filtering the raw bauxite by passing it through various filtering screens. These sort the bauxite ore by its grain size. Different grains are collected in separate containers and then crushed so that all of them have a uniform grain size.

The crushed ore is moved to large grinding mills that further grind it into finer particles. As the ore is being crushed, a caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) is added to create a solution of bauxite and sodium hydroxide. The mixture is allowed to heat under high pressure and temperature.

To keep the temperature consistently spread across the ore, the mill continuously rotates until a consistent liquor-like mixture is achieved for further processing. It is called the “slurry” and contains sodium aluminate, trace elements, and un-dissolved residues from the bauxite ore containing titanium, iron, and silicon. The residues, called “red mud” are allowed to settle at the bottom from where they are easily collected.

#2 — Digesting Slurry

The extracted slurry (without the red mud) is carefully pumped into a digester. The digester is another container where chemical reactions are performed at temperatures of 145 °Celsius (300 °Fahrenheit) and pressures of 50 lb/inch. This dissolves the alumina in the slurry. The conditions are achieved over a period ranging from half-hour to several hours.

During the digesting, additional sodium hydroxide is added for dissolving compounds containing aluminum. As a result, additional compounds either combine with other compounds or dissolve in the sodium hydroxide solution. This creates a layer of scale on the equipment which is cleaned periodically.

The end result of the process is a solution of sodium aluminate. Given that the process occurs inside a pressured tank, the conditions (pressure and temperature) of the process are maintained by transferring the slurry into multiple flash tanks. Once the heat and pressure is stabilized, it is pumped into “settling tanks.”

#3 —Settling the Slurry

Trace elements and compounds formed during the digesting process are allowed to sink towards the bottom of the tank primarily due to gravity, and with aid from additional chemicals. This allows the coffee colored liquor to rise to the top.

The warm alumina contains tiny and suspended crystals and some other particulate impurities. It is directed through a series of giant cloth filters. Known as “leaves”, these filters are used for filtering the remaining and undesired particulate matter present in the liquor.

The material caught in the “leaves” is called a “filter cake”. This material is again washed to recover caustic soda and alumina. The new filtered liquor is cooled before being moved to the “precipitators.”

The remaining red mud is also pumped to a different storage pond after being washed (this allows us to recover alumina and caustic soda). The red mud is dried via evaporation.

#4 Precipitation

The aliminate solution (the liquor) contains crystals that have to be solidified via evaporation. Extreme care is needed to achieve the right results at the end of the process. This is done in rows of HUGE tanks (think six-story high) in which the clear sodium aluminate is pumped and then precipitated into crystals.

The process begins by adding “seed crystals”, fine particles of alumina (alumina hydrate). This causes the pure alumina particles to fully crystallize as the liquor is allowed to cool. Each seed forms the epicenter, allowing the alumina crystals to grow around it and slowly settle to the bottom of the tank.

The crystallized particles are regularly removed from the precipitators and transferred to “thickening tanks.” Once all the crystals are collected, they are filtered and moved to the “calcination kilns” via conveyor belts.

#5 — Calcination of the Crystals

The precipitated alumina hydrate is consistently filtered and washed to further purify it and to remove any impurities. However, the alumina hydrate that crystallized in the precipitation process contains water. It has to be removed.

Calcination is the process of removing the water content from the crystals. The resultant crystals are known as anhydrous alumina.

The hydrated crystals are move to the calcining kiln using a conveyor. The calcination kiln is brick-lined and gas-powered to reach and sustain temperatures of 2,000 °F (1,100 °C) for drying the crystals. Once again, to achieve consistency, the kiln is mounted on a tilted foundation and rotates slowly.

Traditional calcinating kilns have cooling equipment in their foundation and allow the alumina to move to the foundation for cooling purposes. Newer plants have begun using fluid beds where the alumina particles are calcinated while being suspended above a hot air screen.

THE RESULT of calcining is pure alumina, a white, finely grained powder. The alumina is now ready for smelting into aluminum, whereas the caustic soda is recycled and pumped to the beginning of the process.

This brings us to the end of the Bayer process. To recap, here are the steps:

THE BAYER PROCESS (Extended)

  1. Bauxite ore is mechanically crushed and filtered until we have a fine slurry
  2. Slurry is pumped into a pressure cooker like structure, the digester. Aluminum is dissolved using caustic soda and other chemicals to create liquor like solution.
  3. Hot slurry (solution of sodium aluminate) is passed through a series of flash tanks for maintaining heat and pressure
  4. Hot slurry is pumped into a settling tank. Settling leaves red mud at the bottom of the tank.
  5. The liquor is again filtered using giant “leaves”. Filter cake is washed and dried.
  6. Filtered liquid is pumped to precipitators. Seed crystals are added to start precipitation. Crystal precipitate is moved to calcinating kiln to remove water molecules.
  7. Anhydrous alumina (white powder) is achieved at temperature of 2,000° F (1,100° C). Crystals are cooled.

Let’s move to Stage 2: Smelting

Stage 2

Smelting Powdered Alumina to Aluminum

The Hall-Heroult process is the process of smelting (reducing) the anhydrous alumina into pure aluminum. This occurs in a “reduction pot”, a large steel contained completely lined with graphite carbon. Industrial plants often use pots line in long rows to increased efficiency and productivity.

Let’s start with the basic ingredients for the process:

Smelting Alumina — Ingredients

Primarily, there are three ingredients to the Hall-Heroult process, namely:

  1. Cryolite
  2. Carbon
  3. Electricity

Cryolite

Cryolite is a chemical compound made of aluminum, fluorine, and sodium. It is used as an “electrolyte” for the “electric cell” in which the alumina is added. An electrolyte is simply a solution that allows effective flow of current, whereas the whole tank/chamber used for the process acts like a liquid battery used in our cars.

Earlier processes relied on naturally occurring cryolite, however now it is mass produced synthetically for use in the smelting of aluminum. The aluminum fluoride present in the mixture is used for reducing the melting point of the electrolyte solution. Significantly increasing efficiency by reducing resistance to current (and consequent loss of energy as heat).

Carbon and Graphite

The reduction pot in the Hall-Heroult process is an electric cell, and hence requires electrodes .This is where carbon/graphite comes into play. They are used as electrodes that carry current through the electrolyte. Because of the high temperatures reached during the smelting process, the carbon/graphite electrodes react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

This causes them to be used during the process. Every 22 kg of aluminum produced consumes as much as 2 kg of carbon. Hence, the carbon rods need to be periodically replaced to keep the process running until all of alumina is transformed into pure aluminum metal.

Electricity

The Hall-Heroult smelting process consumes large amounts of electricity. The process cannot even start unless the reduction pot is connected to an electric source capable of supplying (on average) 15 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy of Direct Current. The normal alternating current (used in homes) is of no use in a reduction pot. Ideally, the DC current of 15 kWh can generate up to 1 kg (2lb) of pure metallic aluminum. As a result, electricity can costs can come to represent as much as about one-third of the cost of completing the whole Hall-Heroult process of smelting aluminum.

Let’s put each of these ingredients in their proper context

Smelting Alumina — Setting the Reduction Pot

The key to the chemical reactions occur in the Hall-Heroult process and which transform the alumina into metallic aluminum is running a controlled amount of electrical current through a mixture of alumina and cryolite.

The electric cell (reduction pot) is first filled with a mixture of alumina and cryolite. The carbon and rods are suspended into the mixture before being connected to a Direct Current (DC) source. Using the reduction pots requires tremendous amount of power, a simple reason why the smelting plants are always built near power plants, or areas where an assured and steady supply of electrical power is available.

The reduction pot works by allowing the cryolite and alumina mixture to break down into positive and negative charges which are then collected on the electrodes. The electrode connected to the positive terminal of the electrical circuit is called the Anode, whereas the carbon electrode connected to the negative terminal is called the Cathode. Anode attracts negatively charged particles, and vice versa for Cathode. The carbon anode is normally made of petroleum pitch and coke, whereas the cathode is the thick carbon or graphite lining of the pot. This significantly increases the surface area for the pure aluminum to collect on.

So, the reduction process is the process of transferred charges by allowing electricity to flow between the two electrodes using the cryolite/alumina mixture.

Now, the electrical voltage (the force that pushes the charges) used by a typical reduction cell is about 5.25 volts. However, the amperage (or the number of charges flowing per second) is extremely high. It normally is in the range of 100,000 to 150,000 amperes, and at times even more. This is primarily the reason why the carbon electrode dissolves during the process — conducting so may charges at a time heats them up, causing them to react in the oxygen released during the reduction.

Smelting Alumina — Passing the Current

When the reduction pot is ready, the DC current is allowed to flow through the cell. This cause the Anode (positive) to react with the oxygen in the alumina, forcing the carbon molecules of the anode to form carbon dioxide, leaving a single pure metallic aluminum to settle at the bottom of the pot.

The aluminum that settles at the bottom is regularly siphoned and collected into special crucibles alongside the carbon dioxide gas. The gas escapes, leaving pure aluminum.

Normally, the loss in the original cryolite is negligible, whereas the alumina is constantly replenished from the stage 1. The temperature requirements also play a crucial role in how effectively the process proceeds. Normally, pure metallic aluminum begins to form at 900°C, however, once the metal is formed, its melting point is just 660 °C. This is because the alumina’s oxygen content dramatically increases its melting and boiling points, whereas pure aluminum has a much lower melting point. As a result, it is very important to regularly siphon the collected aluminum before it reaches its melting point as it can once again combine with the sludge left by the carbon electrodes.

Smelting Alumina — Purity Levels

Now, the aluminum produced is normally offers a purity level of 99.7% pure, an acceptable purity level for most applications. However, some smelters use more refined techniques for smelting super pure aluminum (achieving 99.99% purity). This aluminum is in high demand for special applications where high conductivity, malleability, and ductility is needed.  Although the small variation (of only 0.29%) may seem marginal, it can significantly alter the properties of the aluminum produced in the end.

Smelting Continuity — Problems

The Hall-Heroult process’s smelting process has to remain continuous to remain profitable as halting and restarting the process is extremely costly, not to mention affects the integrity of the structure. Hence, the plants remain in production 24 hours every day, running year-round to both remain healthy and competitive.

This introduces another problem: of continuous supply of electricity. If the production is halted due to a power failure or interruption for more than just four hours, the aluminum that has been collected at the bottom of the reduction pot solidifies. Re-melting the metal within the pot is often not possible, requiring expensive rebuilding processes that can cost up to $1.6 billion (a typical cost for a modern smelter).

To keep the smelters economically operational, many smelters redirect the heat that is generated during the process for collecting larger quantities of aluminum per siphoning. Another innovation is the use of recycle material into the process. Given that recycled metal requires 5 per cent of the energy required to make new metal, it allows significant savings in the overall energy costs for the smelter, WITHOUT making any difference to the primary metal.

Once the process has been completed, the collected metal can be forged into various shapes, forged, or extruded into the shapes needed to make various items (ranging from electronics and appliances, to cans, automobiles, airplanes, and much more).

Properties of Aluminum

The metallic aluminum that has been collected using the two stages of extraction and smelting is the second most abundant and used metal on the planet. Let’s not forget why that is the case. Aluminum offers a holistic range of valuable properties:

Aluminum is Strong and Light Weight

A metal is not useful if it is not strong enough to hold the integrity of a structure. Then again, the metal should be able to do this without impeding the mobility of the end product. Aluminum has a density of 2.700 kg/m3 which is one-third of steel, whereas its malleability allows it to easily form alloys that dramatically increase its tensile strength.

This is the reason why it is being so readily chosen as the choice for aircrafts, automobiles, structural designs, and appliances. Aluminum alloys can offer tensile strength from anywhere between 70 to 700 MPa.

Aluminum Experiences Linear expansion

This allows predictability in its reaction to variations in temperatures. Aluminum is known to withstand low temperatures without becoming brittle, making them exceptional choice for use in cold regions, whereas their linear and relatively large coefficients of linear expansion allows the designers and engineers to easily calculate circumstances/conditions where it will affect their design.

Aluminum Offers Exceptional Machining Capabilities

It is easy to work with aluminum using most of the machining methods — including cutting, punching, drilling, bending, and milling, among others at comparatively lower energy costs.

Aluminum has great Formability

Aluminum’s metallic structure makes it malleable (it can easily be drawn into sheets and foils), and ductility (it can easily be drawn into wires). The malleability is essential for extrusion purposes where the metal can be rolled in either condition (either hot or cold). This property is commonly exploited during rolling of foils and strips, and also when bending it or performing other forming operations.

Additionally, aluminum also features easy joining, making it a good choice for profile design where jointing is essential, proving itself a good joiner with bonding, taping, friction stir welding, and fusion welding.

Aluminum Offers high Conductivity

Aluminum is a superb conductor for electricity, a property exploited in its extraction. When coupled with its reduced weight, aluminum makes for a great conductor, offering as much as half the weight of normal conductors.

Aluminum is Not Toxic

Aluminum is the most common element in our earth’s crust after silicon and oxygen. Compounds of aluminum also naturally occur or are present in the food we eat. This makes it a great choice for household appliances or for use in hand-held devices or ones that are used regularly.

Aluminum Promises Resistance to Corrosion

Aluminum naturally combines with environmental oxygen to form a thin layer of oxide on its surface without affecting its integrity or strength. This layer is dense, and hence offers excellent resistance to corrosion. Thanks to natural affinity of the aluminum to oxygen, even if the layer is damaged it is automatically repaired.

Normally, Aluminum is neutral in slightly acid environments and extremely durable. However, environments where acidity or basicity is high, corrosion is rapid. This is overcome by anodizing the upper layer. Anodizing increases the thickness of the layer, significantly enhancing its resistance to corrosion under harsh conditions.

Aluminum is Non-Magnetic

Aluminum is often termed a paramagnetic material. Though it conducts electricity, it does not react to magnetic effects. This makes it a great choice for devices and areas where magnetic fields are present but where integrity of the equipment must be maintained (e.g. in magnet X-ray devices).

The Magic of Aluminum —Transformation into products

Smelting is not the end of the line for aluminum. It is just the beginning. Remember that this aluminum itself is now a raw material for use in the industry. So, once smelted, where does aluminum go? How is it transformed into different products?

Here are the top methods and processes used to transform the pure metallic aluminum into different products.

The Extrusion Process

The extrusion process use aluminum ingots (long aluminum rods). During extrusion, the ingot is first heated to the point that the ingot is formable. It is then pressed through a dies (a shaped tool or mold), causing the heated aluminum to come out the other way by taking the shape of the mold. Think of it like pushing dough through a short pipe. The extrusion process offers unlimited possibilities for forming aluminum into different shapes.

The Rolling Process

The rolling process exploits aluminum’s ductility by compressing ingots into sheets and creating rolled products such as foil, strip, plates, and other products. Thanks to high ductility, aluminum foils can be rolled from 2-6 mm up to 60 cm, with the end result being as thin as 0.006 mm without making it porous.

Recycling and Forming Foundry Alloys

One of the most astonishing qualities of aluminum is its recyclability. It can be recycled countless times with 100 percent efficiency, without losing its property or weight. Additionally, being an exceptional conductor of heat, recycling of scrap aluminum requires just 5 percent of the energy that is needed to smelt new aluminum through the Hall-Heroult process, making it a highly soft after raw material even after becoming waste.

Anything aluminum can be recycled, and the recycled aluminum can be sued to make completely new products. This means, bicycles, computers, boats, automobiles, aircrafts, cans, and appliances, among others can be recycled to create anything for instance, thousands of cans can be recycled to create parts for a helicopter, and so on.

Aluminum metal can be melted and re-melted to form different objects promising same properties as that of the original, pure metal. This is where aluminum foundry alloys come in. They can be easily cast in different shapes, allowing the alloys to be easily re-melted where needed to fit the designs.

The Magic of Aluminum — Some Uses

Aluminum is used across every facet of our lives. It is used in products we use regularly, ranging from window frames, kitchen utensils, can, and foils, to aircrafts, electronic equipment, and super computers.

Then we have the engineered alloys of aluminum. They can significantly increase its strength and reduce its weaknesses (for example, the reason why it can be used in aeroplanes is that the alloys leverage its property of linear expansion while overcoming its weakness of expanding quickly at high temperatures.)

Furthermore, aluminum is used in special equipment such as telescope mirrors (apart from being used in toys and decorative papers). Aluminum forms a highly reflecting coating for both heat and light, preventing deterioration.

Final Words

Lightweight, strong, and non-magnetic, among many other things, aluminum has become the silent hallmark of modern metallurgic achievement. We continue to work its alloys and finding newer uses to leverage its exceptional properties for greater purposes. However, we must remain vigilant and remain abreast of the problems the production of aluminum is posing for our environment, and define a better future for this metal and its responsible use.

The Future of Metallic Yet Non-Magnetic Aluminum

Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) is an organization who has partnered with EPA to find solutions to problems of wastage and pollution that the aluminum industry if facing. IN the U.S, virtually all of the aluminum producers its members, and are committed to the focus of VAIP on researching and developing inert (chemically inactive) electrodes for the reduction process (smelting). New achievements, such as the titanium-diboride-graphite electrodes show promise and shows up to 25% reduction in energy use during the smelting process.

We are committed to working closely with the VAIP and taking up the corporate responsibility of bringing better and greener products for our clients and processes for the industry.

Aluminum is perfect for patio furniture for several reasons. One of them is that it will provide both the elegance and comfort that you look for in good patio furniture.

Why Aluminum

Strength and Longevity

Two of the things that make aluminum the perfect material as a choice for outdoor furniture are its longevity and strength. Not only will aluminum not rust, it will retain its elegance throughout the year. Whether you live in areas where the summers mean blistering sun or in a place that is thoroughly drenched by thunderstorms, aluminum is the material for you!

Light-weight

Along with its strength and durability, aluminum is also the solution when it comes to getting furniture that is a little lighter. You do not want to be stuck lugging around giant chairs and tables, if you decide to rearrange your patio. Aluminum furniture is easy to move and can give you the freedom to redesign whenever you feel like it.

Rust-Free

While metal furniture adds a little something to patios, it also falls prey to rusting. This means that you will have to replace it time and again. With patio furniture that is constructed out of aluminum, you never have to worry about rust. This is because on the surface, aluminum immediately binds itself with oxygen and develops a thin layer of oxide. This layer makes the metal and in turn, your furniture, completely corrosion resistant. Exposure to a variety of weather conditions will not damage the condition of your furniture. Aluminum will not only retain the appearance but also maintain its structural integrity without requiring a lot of effort from you.

Variety

Aluminum furniture comes in so many sizes, colors, textures, and styles that you will never look for other options. From lounge beds to dining sets, from chaise lounges and loveseats to barstools, there is so much variety! Pick the style that you like, depending on the look you want your patio to have!

Types of Aluminum Furniture

Typically, patio furniture made out of aluminum is manufactured either from

  • Cast
  • Wrought
  • Tubular

High quality of aluminum ingots are melted and used to create detailed patterns for cast aluminum furniture. This is achieved with intricately patterned moulds. Furniture made from cast aluminum is lightweight, durable, and solid. On the other hand, wrought aluminum is a mixture of aluminum and wrought iron. It heritage grants it the innovative uses that wrought iron has while its rust resistance, lightweight and portable nature are adopted from aluminum.

In furniture that is constructed from tubular aluminum, extruded tubing makes up the frame. The tubing is formed by forcing molten aluminum is forced through a die. Unlimited shapes may be created from tubular aluminum. These range from simple circular to wide racetrack extrusions.

Whether constructed from cast, wrought, or tubular aluminum stock, good quality aluminum patio furniture is irreplaceable. Use it as your prized feature of not only the patio but also other outdoor areas, such as decks.

Finishing Touches

Powder coating is the state of the art finishing technique that is used on metal frames today. After the paint particles have been ionized, they are sprayed onto the frames. The next step is to bake the paint so you are left with a thick and durable finish. Powder coating gives a more comprehensive coating and is resistant to most types of damages – peeling, chipping, fading, and cracking.

Buying Aluminum Furniture

When in the market to buy high quality aluminum furniture, keep an eye out for the following:

  • Any unwelded or incompletely welded nuts and bolts on the frames
  • Welds that are not smooth but instead have a gumball or globular appearance
  • Furniture that does not feel solid or rattles easily because it is not balanced correctly
  • Cushions that are not only comfortable but will also not get flattened too quickly. Look for the ones that have a fabric that is solution-dyed and suited to outdoors covering them.

Caring for your Aluminum Furniture

It is true that aluminum outdoor furniture will require little to no maintenance. This means that it will not rust, provided that is not unfinished. Unfinished exposed aluminum will oxidize. The only thing that you need to do to care for your furniture is thus to maintain the finish. This is important because it will lengthen its life further.

So, how do you care for your patio furniture? The first thing to do is to check or go through the recommendations made by the manufacturer for cleaning it. You must closely follow the instructions because these guidelines will ensure that you do not do anything that will negate any provided warranties.

At times, the guidelines will dictate simple cleaning that would only require washing the furniture, using a solution of mild soap and water. However, for tougher issues, you might require a specialty cleaning product so you can finish quickly.

If you spot any areas where paint is missing or can see fissures in the paint, those needs will need repairing. Use 400-600 grit sandpaper to sand them and then clean the frame. Do not reapply the touch up paint before allowing it to dry completely. You can also apply auto wax once every six months to preserve the original luster of your furniture.

If you are looking to make a sound investment and for home furnishings that will serve, you well, day in and day out for a long time, you need to invest in aluminum patio furniture. At Symentic, we bridge the gap between you and success with quality aluminum! To find out how to choose the right aluminum supplier and other useful things, check out our blog

The Many Faces of Aluminum

For years, aluminum foil has graced kitchens and been used to wrap up leftovers or produce roasts that are succulent and lusciously cooked. However, new uses of aluminum are now being discovered and they include how this amazing metal is being used in scientific research and furthering it. Another amazing use of aluminum in its foil form is that it can be used to treat diseases!

A Unique Use of Aluminum

We kid you not; if pain has taken permanent residence in your back, neck, knees, shoulders, and even heels, what you need is Dr. Aluminum to make it go away. How can you achieve this pain free state of existence you ask? By simply wrapping the aching area in aluminum foil tightly and then waiting for the magic to happen. After a while, your pain will disappear.

Has Anybody Used This Method Before?

Actually, yes they have! While we might be discovering this unique use just now, Russian and Chinese and Russian medicine practitioners have been using it for a long time. The use of this method has also been found as a part of the psychotherapist Wilhelm Reich’s work. Reich had been taught his craft by Freud.

What Kinds of Aches does it treat?

This treatment has used for various types of aches that include but are in no way limited to the following:

  • Cervical Osteochondrosis or neck pain
  • Pain in the limbs
  • Sciatica
  • Rheuma Arthritis
  • Jogger’s heel
  • Back pain

How Often Do I Need To Do This?

The implementation of foil therapy over a period of 10-12 days is recommended. During that time, you will need to keep the painful spot wrapped all day.

Another Unique Use of Aluminum

Surgeries often leave people with scars that are disfiguring. Postoperative scarring is another thing that you can cure with the help of aluminum. Wrap aluminum foil on the area where the surgical incision has left its mark.

Yet another Unique Use of Aluminum

Aluminum foil has also been used to treat the common cold successfully due to its powerful anti-inflammatory effect.

For this foil treatment, you will require a few layers of foil (about 5-7). Use them to wrap your feet with a piece of paper or cotton cloth in between every layer. Let it stay that way for an hour. Now, remove the compress but put it back for another hour after two hours. Do this once more’ repeat the treatment for a week to get rid of your cold.

Aluminum is not only useful in treatments of diseases; it is also the ideal material for patio furniture. For more information on how to choose the right patio furniture and take care of it, read our blog post on the subject. Symintec, we bridge the gap between you and success with qualit

Delectable

Melt Brown Sugar Bricks

Brown sugar might taste delicious; however, if you have ever tried storing any, you would know what a headache it is! No matter where you keep it, the particles seem to attract each other like magnets and you end up with a rock. Most of the sugar gets thrown out that way. Not if you have good ol’ aluminum foil though. Tear a piece of the silvery material, wrap your brick in it and pop the bundle into the oven. Keep it just for five minutes at 300F and open the oven door to soft brown sugariness!

Protect Your Pies

We all love pies but blackened piecrusts leave a bad taste in the mouth. What can you do to prevent them, so that your pies slide out of the oven looking flawless? Fold aluminum foil over the crust to not only keep it from burning but also from falling off while your pie can take its sweet – or savory – time to cook.

Pan Your Cakes

When you are panicking over a cake that you forgot to order, aluminum foil will come to your rescue yet again. It is really easy to make cake pans with this flat sheet of aluminum. The best part is that they can be any shape that you want them to be. Pick up your ordinary cake pan and line it with foil shaped like you want it. It can be anything from a dragon to a house. Pour your cake batter into the customized pan and you will have the cake of your dreams.

Scrub Your Ovens

You may use your trusty old oven for a lot of things. It might be old but you love it and this means you want to keep using it for years to come. How can you protect the useful appliance from spills and splatters of all kinds? After all, oil and grease can destroy oven floors as nothing can. You also know that covering the floor of the oven will only cause a heat build-up during baking. The simplest solution would be to line the underside of whatever pan or pot you put in the oven with foil or spread a piece over the rack under the utensil.

Cleanable

Shine Your Silver

Tarnished silverware is worse than not having any. It makes you look sloppy and careless while you keep spending money on different brands of cleaners that would restore its shine. Fear not because here too, aluminum foil – and science – is on your side! What happens to the silver is simple oxidation that covers the shiny surface and hides its true glory. To keep your silverware always shining bright, roll out some aluminum foil and spread it in a shallow, flat pan. Boil some water and pour it into the pan. Throw in some baking soda and salt. Now put your silver items into the pan and watch the tarnish magically disappear! Polish your utensils with a soft towel to make them shine even brighter.

Spend Less on Dryer Sheets

When you use dryer sheets to dry your laundry, they leave behind a layer of chemical. This means that all your laundry, including the kids’ clothes will be covered with that chemical. When you feel like your towels have suddenly become less absorbent, that chemical is responsible! When that happens, the towels will start to smell after a use or two. So what can you do? Use balls made out of aluminum foil, instead of the dryer sheets. When you are doing your laundry, just toss the foil ball into the dryer and let it take care of things.

Quicken Your Irons

We have all heard of using hair straighteners to fix the collar on shirts while ironing, however, that means you also waste electricity and effort. A much simpler option would be to layer the ironing board with aluminum foil. This will speed up the boring process since the foil is metal and thus a good hear conductor. It will reflect the heat into the shirt and you will be done with ironing in no time.

Keep Your Iron Clean

Now that you know how to iron quickly, you will spend some time doing it. This means that it will also get dirty every now and then. In order to so, spread a sheet of foil over the ironing board and drop some salt on it. Now run the iron on high over your iron cleaner and it will come off clean!

Incredible

Boost Signals

If you are looking for a good wifi signal booster, all you to do is grab some foil. Shape it into a parabolic dish and use it to boost the signal from your wifi router.

Take Better Pictures

At times, taking good family photos becomes difficult. You have to gather everybody; it has to be at the right time and in the presence of the right amount of light. A fancy photography light reflector would do the trick but it would also be expensive. So what can you do to preserve your favorite moments with your friends and family as they turn into memories? Lean on aluminum foil, what else? Take a piece of cardboard and cover it with a layer of aluminum foil. Use it in place of the fancy piece of equipment that you do not have and fall in love with properly-lit pictures!

If you can think of other novel uses for this extremely useful product, chime in below in the comments section. You may also want to check out this blog post about using aluminum for patio furniture. Symintec, we bridge the gap between you and success with quality aluminum!

You will only go for the best aluminum there is, if you are one of the enduring pioneers in a market that essentially relies on aluminum for structural, machining, or architectural purposes. This means you will always be on the lookout for the best aluminum supplier out there. Just as no two snowflakes are similar, no two aluminum suppliers are created equally. You require a supplier that will not only have the best deals but also the experience to back it up. Furthermore, if the delivery is not timely, you might as well close down your shop. Even If you are purchasing aluminum products for occupational or recreational projects, why should you settles for less than the best when you are willing to spend the money? Following is a cheat sheet to help you find the best aluminum supplier, no matter which part of the world you are currently residing in. P.S. we do deliver to 105 countries. Just sayin’!

I will buy from these guys because they sell cheap

Wrong! Ignore any suppliers who offer products that are dirt cheap or close. Here is why! Typically, you will be paying these charges:

  • Ingot
  • Processing
  • Packaging
  • Shipping/Transportation

Keep in mind that aluminum will have similar cost and that the charges above are logical and completely transparent. This means a supplier who is offering you a product at a cost that is significantly lower than the market price is not giving you authentic product. Either through reduction in weight per meter or use of recycled material, you are being taken advantage of.

You also need to keep in mind the type of aluminum products that you are in the market for. If you are just looking to buy aluminum coils, a too-steep price might not be such bad news. However, if you require foil and plates along with the coils, a supplier that is offering a wide range of products at steep prices will no suit you. Similarly, if you were buying in bulk, then prices that are too high would be unsuitable as opposed to a buyer who does not need many coils.

I am going to buy from this supplier because they only sell aluminum products

No, you are not! Some aluminum suppliers are in the business by just stocking aluminum products. They do not manufacture these products. Instead, they employ several telephone operators or sell online. The problem is these people are only in the business to get the products off their shelves. It is highly likely that the telephone operators do not have an inkling about what they are supposed to be selling. They will say anything as long as the customers feels that their needs are being met. They will have no knowledge about the best price-quality ratio or even the best product for a particular use. Their “expert” recommendations may only end up causing you a lot of trouble when you have to pay for reconstruction later!

Pick a supplier possessing in-depth knowledge of aluminum itself. Aluminum is a soft metal that can be damaged or scratched easily if stored or shipped with metals as hard as steel etc. What do you expect the telephone operator will know about the ins and outs of aluminum and proper handling?

I will choose this supplier because they are new on the scene

Wrong approach! Choose a supplier that specializes in the production of industrial aluminum and has been in the business for 5 years or more. Even better, select suppliers who themselves are also aluminum users! A wealth of experience, practiced handling, good understanding of the quality, and the expertise to suggest a better choice of product, depending on its use are just some of the benefits that you will get. Moreover, they may also be able to recommend products, according to what you need, balancing it with the cost affordable to you.

For a look at our products and the level of service that we offer, visit our website today. At Symintec, we bridge the gap between you and success with quality aluminum!